The 7th International Conference on Information Fusion
June 28 to July 1, 2004 in Stockholm, Sweden

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Proceedings of the Seventh International
Conference on Information Fusion

28 June - 1 July 2004
Stockholm Sweden

Table of contents

Preface, pp. i-xii

General Chair's Message
ISIF President's Message
Technical Program Chair's Message
Organization Committee
Technical Program Committee
Best Paper Award

[INV1] Invited Lecture 1
Chair: Stefan Arnborg, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden

Random Sets: Unification and computation for information fusion-A retrospective assessment, pp. 1-20
Ronald P. Mahler, Lockheed Martin MS2 Tactical Systems, USA

[BST] Best paper presentation
Chair: Per Svensson, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden

Decision fusion in a wireless sensor network with a large number of sensors, pp. 21-27
Ruixin Niu, Syracuse University, USA
Pramod K. Varshney, Syracuse University, USA
Michael Moore, Alphatech, USA
Dale Klamer, Alphatech, USA

[TRK1] Tracking 1
Chair: Thiagalingam Kirubarajan, McMaster University, Canada

Target track initiation, comparison and optimization, pp. 28-32
Darko Musicki, University of Melbourne, Australia
Sofia Suvorova, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia

Multi-hypothesis sonar tracking, pp. 33-40
Stefano Coraluppi, NATO Undersea Research Centre, Italy
Craig Carthel, NATO Undersea Research Centre, Italy

Viterbi data association tracking using amplitude information, pp. 41-45
Barbara F. La Scala, University of Melbourne, Australia

[BEL1] Belief functions 1
Chair: Rolf Haenni, University of Konstanz, Germany

Kalman filter and joint tracking and classification in the TBM framework, pp. 46-53
Philippe Smets, Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgium
Branko Ristic, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia

A Data Fusion System for Object Recognition based on Transferable Belief Models and Kalman Filters, pp. 54-61
Gavin Powell, Cardiff University, UK
Dave Marshall, Cardiff University, UK
Richard Milliken, BAe Systems, UK
Keith Markham, BAe Systems, UK

A comparative analysis of two approaches using the road network for tracking ground targets, pp. 62-69
Stéphane Gattein, EADS France, France
Patrick Vannoorenberghe, Université de Rouen, France

[LRN] Learning
Chair: Taek Lyul Song, Hanyang University, Korea

Iterative k-means algorithm based on Fisher discriminant, pp. 70-73
Mantao Xu, University of Joensuu, Finland
Pasi Fränti, University of Joensuu, Finland

Co-operative training in classifier ensembles, pp. 74-78
Nayer Wanas, University of Waterloo, Canada
Rozita Dara, University of Waterloo, Canada
Mohamed S. Kamel, University of Waterloo, Canada

Multitask learning using partial least square method, pp. 79-84
Wen-Cong Lu, Shanghai University, P.R. China
Nian-Yi Chen, Shanghai University, P.R. China
Guo-Zheng Li, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, P.R. China
Jie Yang, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, P.R. China

[DES] Detection & Estimation
Chair: Yvo Boers, Thales Nederland, The Netherlands

Fusion of detections in a multi-carrier GPS receiver, pp. 85-90
Stanislas Boutoille, Laboratoire d'Analyse des Systèmes du Littoral, France
Serge Reboul, Laboratoire d'Analyse des Systèmes du Littoral, France
Mohammed Benjelloun, Laboratoire d'Analyse des Systèmes du Littoral, France

On 'negative' information in tracking and sensor data fusion: discussion of selected examples, pp. 91-98
Wolfgang Koch, FGAN, Germany

Fault detection by desynchronized Kalman filtering, introduction to robust estimation, pp. 99-106
Olivier Bilenne, Multitel A.S.B.L., Belgium

[ATC] New Trends in Data Fusion Algorithms for ATC Applications (Special session)
Chair: Jesús García, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain, José M. Molina, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain, Juan A. Besada, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain

Analysis of data fusion architectures and techniques in the development of an A-SMGCS Surveillance prototype, pp. 107-114
José M. Molina, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain
Jesús García, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain
José R. Casar, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain

On-line bias estimation of secondary radar networks for ATC, pp. 115-122
A. Soto Jaramillo, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain
J.A. Besada Portas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain
J.R. Casar Corredera, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain
J.I. Portillo García, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain

A machine-learning approach to multiple-detection data association for ASDE radar, pp. 123-129
Jesús García, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain
Antonio Berlanga, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain
José M. Molina, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain
Gonzalo de Miguel, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain

[TRK2] Tracking 2
Chair: Yaakov Bar-Shalom, University of Connecticut, USA

Joint IMM and coupled PDA to track closely spaced targets and to avoid track coalescence, pp. 130-137
Henk A.P. Blom, National Aerospace Laboratory NLR, The Netherlands
Edwin A. Bloem, National Aerospace Laboratory NLR, The Netherlands

UKF controlled variable-structure IMM algorithms using coordinated turn models, pp. 138-145
Felix Opitz, EADS Deutschland, Germany
Thomas Kausch, EADS Deutschland, Germany

Integrated tracking splitting filter for manoeuvering targets, pp. 146-152
Darko Musicki, University of Melbourne, Australia
Barbara F. La Scala, University of Melbourne, Australia
Robin J. Evans, University of Melbourne, Australia

[BEL2] Belief functions 2
Chair: Stefan Arnborg, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden

A general model for partially reliable information sources, pp. 153-160
Rolf Haenni, University of Konstanz, Germany
Stephan Hartmann, London School of Economics, UK

Effective ATR algorithms using information fusion models, pp. 161-166
Arnaud Martin, ENSIETA, E3I2, France
Emanuel Radoi, ENSIETA, E3I2, France

Decentralised fusion of disparate identity estimates for shared situation awareness, pp. 167-174
Martin G. Oxenham, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia
Subhash Challa, University of Melbourne, Australia
Mark R. Morelande, University of Melbourne, Australia

[AGT] Agents
Chair: Tom Ziemke, University of Skövde, Sweden

Approximate databases and query techniques for agents with heterogeneous perceptual capabilities, pp. 175-182
Patrick Doherty, University of Linköping, Sweden
Witold Lukaszewicz, University of Economics and Computer Science, Poland
Andrzej Szalas, University of Economics and Computer Science, Poland

Simulating the navigation and control of autonomous agents, pp. 183-189
Erol Gelenbe, Imperial College, UK
Varol Kaptan, Imperial College, UK
Khaled Hussain, University of Central Florida, USA

Sensor scheduling using intelligent agents, pp. 190-197
René Thaens, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands

[SYS1] Systems 1
Chair: Sten F. Andler, University of Skövde, Sweden

An active memory as a model for information fusion, pp. 198-205
Sebastian Wrede, Bielefeld University, Germany
Marc Hanheide, Bielefeld University, Germany
Christian Bauckhage, Bielefeld University, Germany
Gerhard Sagerer, Bielefeld University, Germany

Multitarget tracking in a multisensor multiplatform environment, pp. 206-213
A. Gad, Royal Military College of Canada, Canada
M. Farooq, Royal Military College of Canada, Canada
J. Serdula, Royal Military College of Canada, Canada
D. Peters, Royal Military College of Canada, Canada

Simulation framework for collaborative fusion research, pp. 214-218
Tobias Horney, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden
Mikael Brännström, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden
Mathias Tyskeng, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden
Johan Mårtensson, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden
GeeWah Ng, DSO National Laboratories, Singapore
Mark Gossage, DSO National Laboratories, Singapore
WeeSze Ong, DSO National Laboratories, Singapore
HueyTing Ang, DSO National Laboratories, Singapore
KheeYin How, DSO National Laboratories, Singapore

[AFI1] AFOSR Info Fusion Program 1 (Special session)
Chair: Allen M. Waxman, Alphatech, USA John Tangney, AFOSR, USA

Building a framework for situation awareness, pp. 219-226
John Salerno, AF Research Laboratory, USA
Michael Hinman, AF Research Laboratory, USA
Douglas Boulware, AF Research Laboratory, USA

Synchronization of dynamic networks for knowledge representation and higher-level fusion, pp. 227-234
Neil A. Bomberger, Alphatech, USA
Allen M. Waxman, Alphatech, USA
Felipe M. Pait, Alphatech, USA

Self-organizing hierarchical knowledge discovery by an ARTMAP image fusion system, pp. 235-242
Gail A. Carpenter, Boston University, USA
Siegfried Martens, Boston University, USA
Ogi J. Ogas, Boston University, USA

[TRK3] Tracking 3
Chair: Alfonso Farina, AMS, Italy

Multisensor-multitarget bias estimation for general asynchronous sensors, pp. 243-250
Xiangdong Lin, University of Connecticut, USA
Yaakov Bar-Shalom, University of Connecticut, USA
Thiagalingam Kirubarajan, McMaster University, Canada

An overbounding ellipse approach for set based tracking with range-bearing measurements, pp. 251-257
Fiona Fletcher, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia
M. Sanjeev Arulampalam, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia

Tracking with dissimilar sensors for linear system in case of arbitrary correlated noises, pp. 258-263
Anmin Zhang, Xi'an Jiaotong University, P.R. China
Chongzhao Han, Xi'an Jiaotong University, P.R. China

[BEL3] Belief functions 3
Chair: Philippe Smets, Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgium

Segmentation of brain tumors by evidence theory: on the use of the conflict information, pp. 264-271
Anne-Sophie Capelle, Université de Poitiers, France
Christine Fernandez-Maloigne, Université de Poitiers, France
Olivier Colot, Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, France

Adaptive fuzzy evidential reasoning for automated brain tissue segmentation, pp. 272-279
Hongwei Zhu, University of Waterloo, Canada
Otman Basir, University of Waterloo, Canada

Extended discounting scheme for evidential reasoning as applied to MS lesion detection, pp. 280-287
Hongwei Zhu, University of Waterloo, Canada
Otman Basir, University of Waterloo, Canada

[DMI] Data Mining
Chair: Erland Jungert, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden

Incorporating external data into data warehouses - problems identified and contextualized, pp. 288-294
Mattias Strand, University of Skövde, Sweden
Benkt Wangler, University of Skövde, Sweden

Accuracy vs. comprehensibility in data mining models, pp. 295-300
Ulf Johansson, University of Borås, Sweden
Lars Niklasson, University of Skövde, Sweden
Rikard König, University of Borås, Sweden

Co-evolutionary data mining in phase space for robust fuzzy resource management, pp. 301-307
James F. Smith III, Naval Research Laboratory, USA

[SYS2] Systems 2
Chair: William D. Blair, GeorgiaTech Research Institute, USA

Data fusion development concepts within complex surveillance systems, pp. 308-315
Felix Opitz, EADS Deutschland, Germany
Werner Henrich, EADS Deutschland, Germany
Thomas Kausch, EADS Deutschland, Germany

Extraction of aligned video and radio information for identity and location estimation in surveillance systems, pp. 316-321
Luca Marchesotti, University of Genova, Italy
Reetu Singh, University of Genova, Italy
Carlo Regazzoni, University of Genova, Italy

Belief-evidence fusion in a hybrid intelligent system, pp. 322-329
Nelson Marcos, De La Salle University, Philippines
Arnulfo Azcarraga, De La Salle University, Philippines

[AFI2] AFOSR Info Fusion Program 2 (Special session)
Chair: Allen M. Waxman, Alphatech, USA John Tangney, AFOSR, USA

Crisis management in a data fusion synthetic task environment, pp. 330-337
Peter D. Scott, State University of New York at Buffalo, USA
Galina L. Rogova, Encompass Consulting, USA

Terrain based information fusion and inference, pp. 338-345
Robin Glinton, Carnegie Mellon University, USA
Sean Owens, Carnegie Mellon University, USA
Joe Giampapa, Carnegie Mellon University, USA
Katia Sycara, Carnegie Mellon University, USA
Chuck Grindle, University of Pittsburgh, USA
Mike Lewis, University of Pittsburgh, USA

Multi-agent information fusion: methodology, architecture and software tool for learning of object and situation assessment, pp. 346-353
Vladimir Gorodetsky, SPIIRAS, Russia
Oleg Karsaev, SPIIRAS, Russia
Igor Kotenko, SPIIRAS, Russia
Vladimir Samoilov, SPIIRAS, Russia

[TRK4] Tracking 4
Chair: Egils Sviestins, Saab, Sweden

Bounds for aircraft tracking using a hydrophone array, pp. 354-361
F. Rice, Adelaide University, Australia
D.A. Gray, Adelaide University, Australia
I.S.D. Solomon, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia

Adaptive Kalman filtering based on matched filtering of the innovations sequence, pp. 362-369
Wolfgang Niehsen, Robert Bosch, Germany

Circular filters for target tracking in 3D, pp. 370-376
Dirk Tenne, State University of New York at Buffalo, USA
Tarunraj Singh, State University of New York at Buffalo, USA

Optimal fusion algorithm based on multi-sensor tracking, pp. 377-383
Shiqiang Hu, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, P.R. China
Zhongliang Jing, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, P.R. China
Henry Leung, University of Calgary, Canada

[PDX] Applications and advances of plausible and paradoxical reasoning for data fusion (Special session)
Chair: Jean Dezert, ONERA, France Florentin Smarandache, University of New Mexico, USA

The generalized pignistic transformation, pp. 384-391
Jean Dezert, ONERA, France
Florentin Smarandache, University of New Mexico, USA
Milan Daniel, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Czech Republic

Target tracking with generalized data association based on the general DSm rule of combination, pp. 392-399
Albena Tchamova, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria
Jean Dezert, ONERA, France
Tzvetan Semerdjiev, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria
Pavlina Konstantinova, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria

Neutrosophy in situation analysis, pp. 400-406
Anne-Laure Jousselme, Defence Research and Development Canada, Canada
Patrick Maupin, Defence Research and Development Canada, Canada

Robust Bayesianism: imprecise and paradoxical reasoning, pp. 407-414
Stefan Arnborg, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden

[OTL] Ontology & Category Theory
Chair: Mieczyslaw M. Kokar, Northeastern University, USA

Use cases for ontologies in information fusion, pp. 415-421
Mieczyslaw M. Kokar, Northeastern University, USA
Christopher J. Matheus, Versatile Information Systems, USA
Kenneth Baclawski, Northeastern University, USA
Jerzy A. Letkowski, Western New England College, USA
Michael Hinman, Air Force Research Laboratory, USA
John Salerno, Air Force Research Laboratory, USA

Plan ontology and its applications, pp. 422-428
Lee Chew Hung, DSO National Laboratories, Singapore
Lee Hian Beng, DSO National Laboratories, Singapore
Ng Gee Wah, DSO National Laboratories, Singapore
How Khee Yin, DSO National Laboratories, Singapore

Fusion and integration: What's the difference?, pp. 429-434
Mark E. Oxley, Air Force Institute of Technology, USA
Steven N. Thorsen, Air Force Institute of Technology, USA

Comparing fusors within a category of fusors, pp. 435-441
Steven N. Thorsen, Air Force Institute of Technology, USA
Mark E. Oxley, Air Force Institute of Technology, USA

[SIG] Signal Processing
Chair: Fredrik Gustafsson, Linköping University, Sweden

Tracking and voice separation of moving speakers based on IMM-PDA filters, pp. 442-448
Ilyas Potamitis, University of Patras, Greece
Nikos Fakotakis, University of Patras, Greece

Fusion of spectrograph and LPC analysis for word recognition: a new fuzzy approach, pp. 449-454
Reza HoseinNezhad, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia
Behzad Moshiri, University of Tehran, Iran
Parisa Eslambolchi, University of Tehran, Iran

Gate volume estimation for target tracking, pp. 455-462
Darko Musicki, University of Melbourne, Australia
Mark R. Morelande, University of Melbourne, Australia

Multisite ultra-wideband radar systems with information fusion: some principal features, pp. 463-470
V. Chernyak, State Technical University, Russia

[AFI3] AFOSR Info Fusion Program 3 (Special session)
Chair: Allen M. Waxman, Alphatech, USA John Tangney, AFOSR, USA

Bottom-up clustering and top-down shattering of scale-free environments for information fusion, pp. 471-478
András Lorincz, Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary
Bálint Gábor, Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary
Sándor Mandusitz, Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary
Zsolt Palotai, Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary

Decentralized data fusion and control in active sensor networks, pp. 479-486
Alexei Makarenko, University of Sydney, Australia
Hugh F. Durrant-Whyte, University of Sydney, Australia

Fusion-based knowledge logistics in network-centric environment: intelligent support of OOTW operations, pp. 487-494
Alexander Smirnov, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
Michael Pashkin, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
Nikolai Chilov, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
Tatiana Levashova, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
Andrew Krizhanovsky, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

Mean field theory in density estimation using support vector machines, pp. 495-501
Refaat M. Mohamed, University of Louisville, USA
Aly A. Farag, University of Louisville, USA Wednesday 30 June

[INV2] Invited Lecture 2
Chair: Fredrik Gustafsson, Linköping University, Sweden

Beyond the Kalman filter: particle filters for tracking applications, p. 502
Neil J. Gordon

[NLF1] Non-linear filtering 1
Chair: Alain Appriou, ONERA, France

A study of a nonlinear filtering problem for tracking an extended target, pp. 503-509
Branko Ristic, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia
David J. Salmond, Qinetiq, UK

Intra-ping timing issues in multistatic sonar tracking, pp. 510-517
Stefano Coraluppi, NATO Undersea Research Centre, Italy
Doug Grimmett, NATO Undersea Research Centre, Italy

A stable total least square adaptive algorithm for the nonlinear Volterra filter, pp. 518-522
Xiangyu Kong, Xi'an Jiaotong University, P.R. China
Chongzhao Han, Xi'an Jiaotong University, P.R. China
Ruixuan Wei, Air Force Engineering University, P.R. China

[PNL1] Panel discussion on Challenges in Higher Level Fusion: Unsolved, Difficult, and Misunderstood Problems/Approaches in Levels 2-4 Fusion Research

Panel discussion challenges in higher level fusion: unsolved, difficult, and misunderstood problems/approaches in levels 2-4 fusion research, pp. 523-541
Organizer: Ivan Kadar, Interlink Systems Sciences, USA
Moderators: Ivan Kadar, Interlink Systems Sciences, USA, Per Svensson, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden
Paticipants:

Information fusion as enabling technology for network based defence, pp. 524-525
Per Svensson, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden

Challenges in high level information fusion, pp. 526-527
Joachim Biermann, FGAN, Germany

The curse of JDL, pp. 528-529
Henrik I. Christensen, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden

Unification across JDL data fusion levels 1 and 2, pp. 530-532
Alan Steinberg, Utah State University, USA

Situation awareness: issues and challenges, pp. 533-534
Mitch M. Kokar, Northeastern University, USA

The levels 2, 3, 4 fusion challenge: fundamental statistics, pp. 535-536
Ronald P. Mahler, Lockheed Martin Tactical Systems, USA

Issues and challenges in distributed sensor fusion: connection-resource management aspects, pp. 537-539
Ivan Kadar, Interlink Systems Sciences, USA

Reusability, scalability, and quality in higher-level fusion processing, pp. 540-541
James Llinas, State University of New York at Buffalo, USA

[IMF1] Image fusion 1
Chair: Pramod K. Varshney, Syracuse University, USA

New quality measures for image fusion, pp. 542-546
Gemma Piella, Polytechnical University of Catalonia, Spain

Feature space optimization prior to fuzzy image classification, pp. 547-554
François Leduc, Defence Research and Development Canada, Canada

Region-based image fusion using complex wavelets, pp. 555-562
J.J. Lewis, University of Bristol, UK
R.J. O'Callaghan, University of Bristol, UK
S.G. Nikolov, University of Bristol, UK
D.R. Bull, University of Bristol, UK
C.N. Canagarajah, University of Bristol, UK

[CLA1] Classification 1
Chair: Dan Strömberg, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden

Choosing classifiers for decision fusion, pp. 563-568
Kai F. Goebel, GE Global Research, USA
Weizhong Yan, GE Global Research, USA

Comparison of fusion algorithms based on logistic model of correlated classifiers, pp. 569-575
So Young Sohn, Yonsei University, Korea
Yoon Seong Kim, Yonsei University, Korea

Using hierarchical HMMs in dynamic behavior modelling, pp. 576-582
Shih-Yang Chiao, Lancaster University, UK
Costas S. Xydeas, Lancaster University, UK

[NLF2] Non-linear filtering 2
Chair: Branko Ristic, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia

Rao-Blackwellized Monte Carlo data association for multiple target tracking, pp. 583-590
Simo Särkkä, Helsinki University of Technology, Finland
Aki Vehtari, Helsinki University of Technology, Finland
Jouko Lampinen, Helsinki University of Technology, Finland

A new approach for the bearings-only problem: estimation of the variance-to-range ratio, pp. 591-598
Thomas Brehard, IRISA, France
Jean-Pierre Le Cadre, IRISA, France

Sequential nonlinear tracking filter with range-rate measurements in spherical coordinates, pp. 599-605
Zhan-sheng Duan, Xi'an Jiaotong University, P.R. China
Chongzhao Han, Xi'an Jiaotong University, P.R. China
X. Rong Li, University of New Orleans, USA

[DSR1] Distributed fusion 1
Chair: James Llinas, State University of New York at Buffalo, USA

Bayesian network model for data incest in a distributed sensor network, pp. 606-613
Samuel McLaughlin, University of Melbourne, Australia
Vikram Krishnamurthy, University of British Columbia, Canada
Robin J. Evans, University of Melbourne, Australia

Graphical models for nonlinear distributed estimation, pp. 614-621
Chee-Yee Chong, Alphatech, USA
Shozo Mori, Alphatech, USA

Distributed fusion algorithms in embedded network on-line fusion system, pp. 622-628
Shouzhi Wei, Northeastern University, P.R. China
Hai Zhao, Northeastern University, P.R. China
Gang Wang, Northeastern University, P.R. China
Hui Liu, Northeastern University, P.R. China

[IMF2] Image fusion 2
Chair: Mohammad Farooq, Royal Military College of Canada, Canada

Fusion of distributions for radar clutter modeling, pp. 629-636
Erik P. Blasch, Air Force Research Laboratory, USA
Mike Hensel, Jacobs Sverdrup, USA

Fusion of multispectral and SAR images by intensity modulation, pp. 637-643
Luciano Alparone, University of Florence, Italy
Luca Facheris, University of Florence, Italy
Stefano Baronti, CNR, Italy
Andrea Garzelli, University of Siena, Italy
Filippo Nencini, University of Siena, Italy

SAR and optical images fusion algorithm based on wavelet transform, pp. 644-648
Yunfeng Wang, Sichuan University, P.R. China
Zhisheng You, Sichuan University, P.R. China
Jianguo Wang, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, P.R. China

[ATO1] Data fusion and tracking in automotive active safety applications 1 (Special session)
Chair: Angelos Amditis, National Technical University of Athens, Greece

Precise vehicle localization using multiple sensors and natural landmarks, pp. 649-656
Ullrich Scheunert, Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany
Heiko Cramer, Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany
Gerd Wanielik, Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany

Lane data fusion for driver assistance systems, pp. 657-663
Albrecht Klotz, Robert Bosch, Germany
Jan Sparbert, Robert Bosch, Germany
Dieter Hötzer, Robert Bosch, Germany

Multi sensor data fusion using a generalized feature model applied to different types of extended road objects, pp. 664-671
Heiko Cramer, Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany
Ullrich Scheunert, Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany
Gerd Wanielik, Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany

[CLA2] Classification 2
Chair: Kai F. Goebel, GE Global Research, USA

Data quality based fusion: application to the land cover, pp. 672-679
V. Phan Luong, Université de Provence, France
T.T. Pham, Université de Provence, France
R. Jeansoulin, Université de Provence, France

Attribute impact for a seismic image fusion system based on fuzzy rules, pp. 680-685
Lionel Valet, Université de Savoie, France
Gilles Mauris, Université de Savoie, France

Information matrix fusion with feedback versus number of sensors, pp. 686-692
Qiao Xiangdong, Air Force Engineering University, P.R. China
Chang Kuochu, George Mason University, USA

[PTL1] Particle filtering 1
Chair: Wolfgang Koch, FGAN, Germany

Efficient particle-based track-before-detect in Rayleigh noise, pp. 693-700
Mark G. Rutten, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia
Neil J. Gordon, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia
Simon Maskell, Qinetiq, UK

A particle filter multi target track before detect application: some special aspects, pp. 701-708
Yvo Boers, Thales Nederland, The Netherlands
Hans Driessen, Thales Nederland, The Netherlands

Sequential Monte Carlo algorithms for joint target tracking and classification using kinematic radar information, pp. 709-716
Donka Angelova, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria
Lyudmila Mihaylova, University of Bristol, UK

[DSR2] Distributed fusion 2
Chair: Chee-Yee Chong, Alphatech, USA

Bayesian track correlation and numbering, pp. 717-722
Egils Sviestins, Saab, Sweden

Communication in general decentralized filters and the coordinated search strategy, pp. 723-730
Frederic Bourgault, University of Sydney, Australia
Hugh F. Durrant-Whyte, University of Sydney, Australia

Communication issues in decentralized Kalman filters, pp. 731-738
Markus S. Schlosser, Universität Karlsruhe, Germany
Kristian Kroschel, Universität Karlsruhe, Germany

[IMF3] Image fusion 3
Chair: Erik P. Blasch, Air Force Research Laboratory, USA

Sensor fusion for video surveillance, pp. 739-746
Lauro Snidaro, University of Udine, Italy
Gian Luca Foresti, University of Udine, Italy
Ruixin Niu, Syracuse University, USA
Pramod K. Varshney, Syracuse University, USA

Background information fusion and its application in video target tracking, pp. 747-753
Yuxi Chen, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, P.R. China
Chongzhao Han, Xi'an Jiaotong University, P.R. China
Xin Kang, Xi'an Jiaotong University, P.R. China
Mingjun Wang, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, P.R. China

A background reconstruction algorithm based on pixel intensity classification in remote video surveillance system, pp. 754-759
Zhiqiang Hou, Xi'an Jiaotong University, P.R. China
Chongzhao Han, Xi'an Jiaotong University, P.R. China

[ATO2] Data fusion and tracking in automotive active safety applications 2 (Special session)
Chair: Angelos Amditis, National Technical University of Athens, Greece

Centralized data fusion for obstacle and road borders tracking in a collision warning system, pp. 760-767
Aris Polychronopoulos, National Technical University of Athens, Greece
Ullrich Scheunert, Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany
Fabio Tango, Fiat Research Centre, Italy

Lateral motion tracking of automobiles, pp. 768-774
Angelos Amditis, National Technical University of Athens, Greece
Nikolaos Floudas, National Technical University of Athens, Greece
Aris Polychronopoulos, National Technical University of Athens, Greece

Track to track fusion method applied to road obstacle detection, pp. 775-782
C. Blanc, Université Blaise Pascal, France
L. Trassoudaine, Université Blaise Pascal, France
Y. Le Guilloux, Sagem, France
R. Moreira, Sagem, France

[RSM1] Resource Management 1
Chair: Paul Horridge, Qinetiq, UK

Sensor management with non-ideal sensor dynamics, pp. 783-790
Ronald Mahler, Lockheed Martin MS2 Tactical Systems, USA

Hierarchical resource management in adaptive airborne surveillance radar, pp. 791-798
Johannes Wintenby, Ericsson Microwave Systems, Sweden
Vikram Krishnamurthy, University of British Columbia, Canada

Mission driven sensor management, pp. 799-804
Fok Bolderheij, Royal Netherlands Naval College, The Netherlands
Piet van Genderen, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands

[PTL2] Particle filtering 2
Chair: David J. Salmond, Qinetiq, UK

An application of a particle filter to Bayesian multiple sound source tracking with audio and video information fusion, pp. 805-812
Hideki Asoh, National Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Japan
Futoshi Asano, National Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Japan
Takashi Yoshimura, National Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Japan
Yoichi Motomura, National Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Japan
Naoyuki Ichimura, National Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Japan
Isao Hara, National Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Japan
Jun Ogata, National Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Japan
Kiyoshi Yamamoto, University of Tsukuba, Japan

A particle method for finding distributed objects, pp. 813-819
John H. Greenewald, Nonlinear Vision, USA
Stanton H. Musick, Air Force Research Laboratory, USA
Teri L. Piatt, Jacobs Sverdrup, USA

Multisensor dense estimation of 3D motion and object tracking based on a particle approach, pp. 820-827
P. Lanvin, Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, France
J.-C. Noyer, Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, France
M. Benjelloun, Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, France

[DSR3] Distributed fusion 3
Chair: Subrata Das, Charles River Analytics, USA

Decision fusion rules in multi-hop wireless sensor networks, pp. 828-835
Ying Lin, Syracuse University, USA
Biao Chen, Syracuse University, USA
Pramod K. Varshney, Syracuse University, USA

Ad hoc sensor network topology design for distributed fusion: A mathematical programming approach, pp. 836-841
Abhay Joshi, State University of New York at Buffalo, USA
Nishant Mishra, State University of New York at Buffalo, USA
Rajan Batta, State University of New York at Buffalo, USA
Rakesh Nagi, State University of New York at Buffalo, USA

Data fusion for the Finnish fast attack craft squadron 2000: concept and architecture, pp. 842-847
Werner Henrich, EADS Deutschland, Germany
Thomas Kausch, EADS Deutschland, Germany
Felix Opitz, EADS Deutschland, Germany

[IMF4] Image fusion 4
Chair: Shozo Mori, Alphatech, USA

Processing and fusion of thermal and video sequences for terrestrial long range observation systems, pp. 848-855
Leonid P. Yaroslavsky, Tel Aviv University, Israel
Barak Fishbain, Tel Aviv University, Israel
Alex Shteinman, Tel Aviv University, Israel
Shai Gepshtein, Tel Aviv University, Israel

On the fusion of 3-D reconstruction techniques, pp. 856-861
Ahmed Eid, University of Louisville, USA
Aly A. Farag, University of Louisville, USA

Automatic delineation of the osseous interface in ultrasound images by information fusion, pp. 862-867
Daanen Vincent, Institut d'Informatique et Mathématiques Appliquées de Grenoble, France
Tonetti Jerome, A. Michallon University Hospital, France
Troccaz Jocelyne, Institut d'Informatique et Mathématiques Appliquées de Grenoble, France

[ATO3] Data fusion and tracking in automotive active safety applications 3 (Special session)
Chair: Angelos Amditis, National Technical University of Athens, Greece

IMM vehicle tracking for traffic jam situations on highways, pp. 868-875
Nico Kaempchen, University of Ulm, Germany
Klaus C.J. Dietmayer, University of Ulm, Germany

Combining IMM filtering and DS data association for multitarget tracking, pp. 876-880
Hongshe Dang, Shaanxi Science & Technology University, P.R. China
Chongzhao Han, Xi'an Jiaotong University, P.R. China
Dominique Gruyer, Laboratoire sur les Interactions Véhicules, France

DGPS/INS data fusion for land navigation, pp. 881-887
Denis Berdjag, Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, France
Denis Pomorski, Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, France

[RSM2] Resource Management 2
Chair: Jean-Pierre Le Cadre, IRISA, France

Optimal policy for scheduling of Gauss-Markov systems, pp. 888-892
Stephen Howard, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia
Sofia Suvorova, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia
Bill Moran, University of Melbourne, Australia

Optimal sensor trajectories in bearings-only tracking, pp. 893-900
Marcel L. Hernandez, Qinetiq, UK

Variance Reduction for Monte Carlo implementation of adaptive sensor management, pp. 901-908
Sumeetpal Singh, University of Cambridge, UK
Ba-Ngu Vo, University of Melbourne, Australia
Robin J. Evans, University of Melbourne, Australia
Arnaud Doucet, University of Cambridge, UK Thursday 1 July

[INV3] Invited Lecture 3
Chair: Egils Sviestins, Saab, Sweden

Games as a model for distributed fusion, p. 909
Henrik I. Christensen

[GTT1] Ground Target Tracking and Classification 1 (Special session)
Chair: Mahendra Mallick, Lockheed Martin Orincon, USA

Branching Ground Target Tracking using Sparse Manual Observations, pp. 910-915
Johan Edlund, Saab, Sweden
Carl Johan Setterlind, Saab, Sweden
Niclas Bergman, Saab, Sweden

Sequential constraint estimation: implementation modifications, pp. 916-921
Allen R. Stubberud, University of California, Irvine, USA
Stephen C. Stubberud, Boeing, USA

An MCMC-based particle filter for tracking target in glint noise environment, pp. 922-927
Hongtao Hu, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, P.R. China
Zhongliang Jing, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, P.R. China
Anping Li, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, P.R. China
Shiqiang Hu, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, P.R. China
Hongwei Tian, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, P.R. China

[STH1] Situation, Threat and High-Level fusion 1
Chair: Pontus Svenson, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden

Modelling, simulation and estimation of situation histories, pp. 928-935
Daniel McMichael, CSIRO Information and Communications Technology Centre, Australia
Geoff Jarrad, CSIRO Information and Communications Technology Centre, Australia
Simon Williams, CSIRO Information and Communications Technology Centre, Australia
Michael Kennett, CSIRO Information and Communications Technology Centre, Australia

The IFD03 information fusion demonstrator, pp. 936-943
Simon Ahlberg, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden
Pontus Hörling, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden
Karsten Jöred, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden
Christian Mårtenson, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden
Göran Neider, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden
Johan Schubert, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden
Hedvig Sidenbladh, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden
Pontus Svenson, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden
Per Svensson, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden
Katarina Undén, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden
Johan Walter, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden

Automated dynamic symbology for visualization of high level fusion, pp. 944-950
Youngseok Kim, State University of New York at Buffalo, USA
Thenkurussi Kesavadas, State University of New York at Buffalo, USA

[MED] Medical applications
Chair: Andris Lauberts, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden

A tool for the analysis and synthesis of alarms in patient monitoring, pp. 951-958
A. Otero, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Spain
P. Félix, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Spain
S. Barro, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Spain
F. Palacios, Hospital General Universitario de Elche, Spain

Probabilistic unit life status estimation (PULSE), pp. 959-966
Subrata Das, Charles River Analytics, USA
Josh Introne, Charles River Analytics, USA
Dave Lawless, Charles River Analytics, USA
Reed Hoyt, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, USA
Steve Muza, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, USA

Dispatching/routing of emergency vehicles in a disaster environment using data fusion concepts, pp. 967-974
Qiang Gong, State University of New York at Buffalo, USA
Arun Jotshi, State University of New York at Buffalo, USA
Rajan Batta, State University of New York at Buffalo, USA

[PNL2] Panel discussion on Dezert-Smarandache theory

Panel discussion on Dezert-Smarandache theory, p. 975
Organizer: International Society of Information Fusion (ISIF)
Moderators: James Llinas, State University of New York at Buffalo, USA, Éloi Bossé, Defence Research and Development Canada, Canada
Participants:

Introduction to DSmT for information fusion
Jean Dezert, ONERA, France

Is DSmT a reasonable alternative to DST?
Rolf Haenni, University of Konstanz, Germany

[IIF1] Image & Information Fusion 1 (Special session)
Chair: Allen M. Waxman, Alphatech, USA

Information fusion for feature extraction and the development of geospatial information, pp. 976-982
Michael A. O'Brien, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, USA
John M. Irvine, SAIC, USA

Multisensor image fusion, mining and reasoning: rule sets for higher-level AFE in a COTS environment, pp. 983-990
Marianne Chiarella, Alphatech, USA
David A. Fay, Alphatech, USA
Richard T. Ivey, Alphatech, USA
Neil A. Bomberger, Alphatech, USA
Allen M. Waxman, Alphatech, USA

Fusion of texture measures for urban area characterization, pp. 991-998
Giovanna Trianni, University of Pavia, Italy
Marika Tosi, University of Pavia, Italy
Fabio Dell'Acqua, University of Pavia, Italy
Paolo Gamba, University of Pavia, Italy

[GTT2] Ground Target Tracking and Classification 2 (Special session)
Chair: Mahendra Mallick, Lockheed Martin Orincon, USA

Plot-to-track correlation in A-SMGCS using the target images from a surface movement radar, pp. 999-1005
Giovanni Golino, AMS, Italy Alfonso Farina, AMS, Italy

Ten ways to fuse GMTI and HRRR measurements for joint tracking and identification, pp. 1006-1013
Erik P. Blasch, Air Force Research Laboratory, USA
Chun Yang, Sigtem Technology, USA

The minimum risk angle for automatic target recognition using the intersecting cortical model, pp. 1014-1021
Nils Zetterlund, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
Thomas Lindblad, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
Ulf Ekblad, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden

[STH2] Situation, Threat and High-Level fusion 2
Chair: Martin G. Oxenham, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia

Improving situation awareness using aerial-mission recognition and temporal information, pp. 1022-1029
Maria Andersson, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden
Göran Pettersson, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden

Iterative information fusion using a reasoner for objects with uninformative belief values, pp. 1030-1037
S.K. Chang, University of Pittsburgh, USA
Erland Jungert, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden

A general situation assessment model based on rule extraction, pp. 1038-1043
Xiao-dan Zhang, Northeastern University, P.R. China
Hai Zhao, Northeastern University, P.R. China
Zhan-sheng Duan, Xi'an Jiaotong University, P.R. China

[ASO1] Association 1
Chair: Ivan Kadar, Interlink Systems Sciences, USA

Multi-target out-of-sequence data association, pp. 1044-1051
Simon Maskell, Qinetiq, UK
Richard Everitt, Qinetiq, UK
Robert Wright, Qinetiq, UK
Mark Briers, Qinetiq, UK

A probabilistic strongest neighbor filter algorithm for m validated measurements, pp. 1052-1058
Taek Lyul Song, Hanyang University, Korea
Kye Jin Rhee, LG Innotek, Korea
Dong Gwan Lee, Hanyang University, Korea

Association matrix generation for sensor data fusion, pp. 1059-1065
Michele Bierbaum, Johns Hopkins University, USA

[IIF2] Image & Information Fusion 2 (Special session)
Chair: Allen M. Waxman, Alphatech, USA

Colorizing grayscale intensified nightvision images, pp. 1066-1071
Alexander Toet, TNO, The Netherlands

Hybrid fused displays: between pixel- and region-based image fusion, pp. 1072-1079
S.G. Nikolov, University of Bristol, UK
J.J. Lewis, University of Bristol, UK
R.J. O'Callaghan, University of Bristol, UK
D.R. Bull, University of Bristol, UK
C.N. Canagarajah, University of Bristol, UK

A Multiple-Hypothesis Tracking of Multiple Ground Targets from Aerial Video with Dynamic Sensor Control, pp. 1080-1087
Pablo Arambel, Alphatech, USA
Matthew Antone, Alphatech, USA
Constantino Rago, Alphatech, USA
Herbert Landau, Alphatech, USA
Thomas Strat, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, USA

[GTT3] Ground Target Tracking and Classification 3 (Special session)
Chair: Mahendra Mallick, Lockheed Martin Orincon, USA

Ground target classification using combined radar and IR with simulated data, pp. 1088-1095
Andris Lauberts, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden
Mikael Karlsson, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden
Fredrik Näsström, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden
Rahman Aljasmi, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden

Distributed data fusion in a ground sensor network, pp. 1096-1103
Mikael Brännström, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden
Ron Lennartsson, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden
Andris Lauberts, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden
Hans Habberstad, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden
Erland Jungert, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden
Martin Holmberg, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden

Multi target tracking of ground targets in clutter with LMIPDA-IMM, pp. 1104-1110
Darko Musicki, University of Melbourne, Australia
Sofia Suvorova, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia
Subhash Challa, University of Technology Sydney, Australia

[STH3] Situation, Threat and High-Level fusion 3
Chair: Johan Schubert, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden

A Bayesian blackboard for information fusion, pp. 1111-1116
Charles Sutton, University of Massachusetts, USA
Clayton Morrison, USC Information Sciences Institute, USA
Paul R. Cohen, USC Information Sciences Institute, USA
Joshua Moody, USC Information Sciences Institute, USA
Jafar Adibi, USC Information Sciences Institute, USA

Support for situation awareness in command and control, pp. 1117-1124
Klas Wallenius, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden

Bayesian games for threat prediction and situation analysis, pp. 1125-1132
Joel Brynielsson, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
Stefan Arnborg, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden

[ASO2] Association 2
Chair: Henry Leung, University of Calgary, Canada

Evaluation of data association hypotheses: non-Poisson I.I.D. cases, pp. 1133-1140
Shozo Mori, Alphatech, USA
Chee-Yee Chong, Alphatech, USA

An efficient approach to decompose the multidimensional assignment problem, pp. 1141-1149
Huub W. de Waard, Thales Naval Nederland, The Netherlands
Agostino Capponi, Thales Naval Nederland, The Netherlands

A polynomial time algorithm for the multidimensional assignment problem in multiple sensor environments, pp. 1150-1157
Agostino Capponi, Thales Naval Nederland, The Netherlands
Huub W. de Waard, Thales Naval Nederland, The Netherlands

[REL1] Reliability in Information fusion 1 (Special session)
Chair: Galina Rogova, Encompass Consulting, USA

Reliability in information fusion: literature survey, pp. 1158-1165
Galina L. Rogova, Encompass Consulting, USA
Vincent Nimier, ONERA, France

Information evaluation: a formalisation of operational recommendations, pp. 1166-1171
Vincent Nimier, ONERA, France

Assessing the reliability of open source information, pp. 1172-1178
David F. Noble, Evidence Based Research, USA

[GTT4] Ground Target Tracking and Classification 4 (Special session)
Chair: Mahendra Mallick, Lockheed Martin Orincon, USA

Differential geometry measures of nonlinearity with applications to ground target tracking, pp. 1179-1186
Mahendra Mallick, Lockheed Martin Orincon, USA

Sensor Resource Management with Hierarchical Target Valuation Models, pp. 1187-1194
Joe P. Hill, Alphatech, USA
K.C. Chang, George Mason University, USA

Ground surveillance and fusion of ground target sensor data in a network based defense, pp. 1195-1201
Håkan Warston, Ericsson Microwave Systems, Sweden
Hans Persson, Ericsson Microwave Systems, Sweden

[STH4] Situation, Threat and High-Level fusion 4
Chair: Éloi Bossé, Defence Research and Development Canada, Canada

Bridging the gap between information need and information acquisition, pp. 1202-1209
L. Ronnie M. Johansson, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
Robert Suzic, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden

An approach to integrated cognitive fusion, pp. 1210-1217
Gabriel Jakobson, Altusys, USA
Lundy Lewis, Southern New Hampshire University
John Buford, Altusys, USA

Revisions and extensions to the JDL data fusion model II, pp. 1218-1230
James Llinas, State University of New York at Buffalo, USA
Christopher Bowman, Consultant, USA
Galina L. Rogova, Encompass Consulting, USA
Alan Steinberg, Utah State University, USA
Ed Waltz, General Dynamics Advanced Information, USA
Frank White, US Navy Spawar Systems Center, USA

[ASO3] Association 3
Chair: Hedvig Sidenbladh, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden

Assignment costs for multiple sensor track-to-track association, pp. 1231-1237
Lance M. Kaplan, Clark Atlanta University, USA
William D. Blair, Georgia Tech Research Institute, USA

A neural network based approach for ESM/radar track association, pp. 1238-1244
Yifeng Zhou, Defence Research and Development Canada, Canada
Jim Mickeal, Defence Research and Development Canada, Canada
Barbara Ford, Defence Research and Development Canada, Canada

MCMC data association algorithm applied to the French over-the-horizon radar Nostradamus, pp. 1245-1250
David Bourgeois, ENSEA, France
Christèle Morisseau, ONERA, France
Marc Flécheux, ONERA, France

[REL2] Reliability in Information fusion 2 (Special session)
Chair: Galina Rogova, Encompass Consulting, USA

Automated association of track information from sensor sources with non-sensor information in the context of maritime surveillance, pp. 1251-1256
Eric Lefebvre, Lockheed Martin Canada, Canada
Christopher Helleur, Defence Research and Development Canada, Canada

Reliability of PDA based target tracking in clutter, pp. 1257-1262
Darko Musicki, University of Melbourne, Australia
Xuezhi Wang, University of Melbourne, Australia

Robustness analysis at the technical level of situation assessment, pp. 1263-1268
Xuezhi Wang, University of Melbourne, Australia
Gavin Thoms, University of Melbourne, Australia

Authors Index

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